If we take a closer look to the traditional Indian dance form Bharata Natyam there are different definitions to explain the word. And as I learned during my discussion with Didier, it's like this for a lot of things in India as for example for gods, stories and so on. The dance was called uniformly Bharata Natyam only since 1940. Before, it was named differently and with more than one term provided. One definition tells that Bharata comes from three syllables: Bha which comes from of bhava emotion, Ra which comes from raga melody, Ta which comes from tala rhythm and the word Natyam means dramatic art (5). To be able to dance Bharata Natyam one has to study expression, music, rhythm and dramatic arts and Didier points out that it is a 'full art' for which you need to learn: nritta (pure dance) and nrtya (meaning dance). Originally Bharata Natyam was danced by devadasis (6) only in temples and these devadasis were dancing during rituals. They function as a link between priests and gods. While I am reading and writing about this role of a Bharata Natyam dancer I realize that a little discomfort arises in me. How can a European woman of the 21st century wants to dance postures who are grounded on this role? Today this dance is presented in some temples as well as on stages all over the world and it is performed by Indian and European female and also some male dancers.
Richard Schechner observed Kathakali actors and witnessed artists who became one with their action. He wrote that they where “'controlled' in all their actions. (…) These actors felt 'free' because in performance their 'second body' had become through reshaping and practice perfectly 'natural'. Performers trained this way embody their training so thoroughly that they no more think of it than a native speaker thinks of grammar and vocabulary while speaking his mother tongue.”(7) I personally never went through such a traditional dance training and I never got to know how it feels to be so well-trained that you become one with the action, but I practised Kendo (8) for some years. And as I remember the aim of martial arts was to destroy the everyday life automatisms, so that another quality of energy could be implant into your body. I resigned Kendo-training because I could not handle the alienated rhythms and forms which the training wanted to impose on my body. It wasn't me anymore. Based on this experience, I have the greatest scepticism about an intercultural training practice, while at the same time I have great longing of a well-trained 'performance art body' – what ever this could be.
In India most of the time Bharata Natyam training will start at the age of four, comparable to classical ballet in Europe. When Didier studied in India she took some individual classes, but during the collective classes she was most of the time taught together with children between 6 and 12 years old. “ The children danced very well and already even better than me, which was a big lesson of humility.”
Let's take a closer look to the way how the Bharata Natyam dance training was/is organized, to the defined structures and rituals and the differences between Indian and Belgium methods of teaching. For Didier each class starts with a warm up, some exercises of different positions of hands, legs, head, foots, pond, thorax... which supports later on mudras, hastas (hands movements) and bhedas (neck and eyes movements). Afterwords the class goes on with a sloka (9). “ In India, most of the time the class started and finished with salute foots. This salutation is a mark of respect from the student and a mark of blessing from the guru.” Didier supposes that this gesture or ritual will slowly disappear. During the performance on stage the dancer salutes also via the namaskar (salute to the sun) musicians, stage, god, guru and audience. “During this phase you learn aramandi, samapadam, mandi (the basic positions), foot steps, nine moods or sentiments, rhythm, the art of representation, dance sequences, songs, etc... “
The differences between the education in India and Belgium lies for Didier first of all in the relation between the guru (teacher) and the sisya (student). “In India it is like the relation between a parent and a child and the teaching happens orally and it takes time. You learn very slowly, because this art asks a long practise and maturity.” Time has also a different value in the European and Indian educational system. An Indian dance class can take 5 minutes or 2 hours - it just depends of what happens during the actual practice. Another difference is, that a student in India studies only mudras/hastas (hands gestures) and adavus (steps) which includes talas (rhythm) for minimum one till three years. After this basic studies the Indian student gets the chance to start studying some jettis (combination of adavus) and later on choreographies. An Indian student never studies choreographies immediately. “The student body (spirit or mental) has first to be educated. His or her body, lines of body and relation between body and space needs to become perfect first. In Belgium nobody (or just a few) accept this.” While in Europe the way of education is more ludic in the eye of Didier you need a great self-taught discipline in India. There the education passes by the imitation and practise. “It means, that you have to practise a lot by yourself. Sometimes the guru is there only to check.” When Didier went to her individual classes (1 hour by bus) sometimes the teacher was not there at all, or the teacher just told her what she should practise during the next minutes and that she will come back soon. “...but sometimes she just came back after 1 hour.” Through observations and conversations Didier realized that she was not an isolated case. Also a professional Indian musician told her that sometimes when he went to visit his guru (3 till 4 hours by bus) he just got a 10 minutes lesson. His teacher just told him what he should practise during the next 6 month, before he had his next lesson. As long as this is not based on financial greed, I can fully understand the last point. For me it is a kind of deep wisdom in the notion of time and repetition of particular learning processes. Everyone needs his or her own duration for the process of learning (e.g. a language, a dance technique or even a way of analysing in a particular way). There is no way out or no short-cut to learn some things. You just have to practice and the teacher is not necessary needed to observe every single reiteration.
Actually you will find Bharata Natyam dance training also on the internet. Right now no one can imagine how this will change the education at all, but I think it already changed the view toward these dance form. For Didier this way might help technically to entertain, but she thinks that it will never reach the value of the oral teaching of the guru. “This dance asks to be understood from the inside of our bodies.” As I understood Bharata Natyam right now and out of my theoretical research, it should be the embodiment of music in a visual form, a ceremony and an act of devotion. Didier was soaked in by the culture and the environment when she visited India for her first time - “like a sponge which absorbs everything.” She realized that the notion of devotion in India is still very present. “Devotion to parents, teacher, art, gods,etc...” So in this cultural surrounding it was much more easier for her to practice such an act of devotion, than later on in Belgium. But even in India sometimes her occidental attitude came back and in this moments it was not easy for her anymore to follow the lesson and the way of teaching - without understanding everything. “I can't be 'devoted' or feel the same devotion to my teacher or to gods,or... I'm not an Indian.” In spite of this fact, when she started Bharata Natyam she tried to learn like an Indian student - to imitate and to practise without questioning and she did this also “in respect” for her teacher and other students. Merleau-Ponty wrote:
“… all knowledge of man by man, far from being pure contemplation is the taking up by each, as best he can, of the act of others, reactivating form ambiguous signs an experience which is not his own, appropriating a structure of which he forms no distinct concept but which he puts together as an experienced pianist deciphers an unknown piece of music: without himself grasping the motives of each gesture or each operation, without being able to bring to the surface of conciousness all the sedimented knowledge which he is using at the moment. Here we no longer have the position of an object, but rather we have a communication with a way of being.” (10)
While above I was interested to figure out how the training of Indian traditional dance might differ between India and Europe, I focus during the next paragraphs on the influence of exotic rhythm structures on a performance artist. How does the body perception of a European performer change, if he/she appropriates foreign rhythms? Bharata Natyam has three distinct elements: Nritta - rhythmic dance movements, Natya - mime, or dance with a dramatic aspect and Nritya – a combination of Nritta and Natya. I was curious how long it took for Didier to get the rhythm, the mime and the combination be inscribed into her body so deeply that she could grasp the idea of the dance? And if this three divided parts of the dance influenced her own rhythm inside a contemporary performance, her expression inside the performance mode and her performative flow?
“It takes a loooooooong time, because you have a lot of different rhythms. But I think after one year I started to get some. And the workshop of Konnakol I followed with a mridangam (11) player helped me. During this workshop I practised a lot of hours/day.”
As an educated actress it should be easy for Didier to mime but at the end it was more complicated than she thought. But as we know, if you want to mime from the inside you have to understand the story, the emotions, the different ways - also cultural ways - of manifestations and expressions of feelings. And that was exactly the obstacle here. The stories of Bharata Natyam are always related to gods. “For us, it's really complicated as we don't grow up with this. In India gods are in everyday life, with ceremonies but also on roads, in supermarkets,etc... The representation of gods is everywhere and all the time.” This might be also the reason why it is still very rare for Didier to see the quality of some European Bharata Natyam dancers. “Not only because of the complexity of the dance but also because the difference of cultures (…) How as a European can you 'naturally' represent the notion of devotion for a god, without looking 'false', 'stupid” or 'offbeat'?”
In Louis Malle's movie L'Inde fantome, where he filmed some European and some Indian students in the school of Bharata Natyam Kalakshetra, Didier got the feeling that these European students will never be credible. “Is it totally impossible for Europeans to perform Bharata Natyam wholeheartedly with all aspects?” In Didiers eyes, dancers like Monika Gunz or Lucia Thibault, which also spend a long duration in India, invest an amount of time and an amount of energy to become very good and to get 'full' access to the art. When Didier followed the Konnakol class which is working on rhythm, it helped her to explore different ways of rhythm in body and mind - “to use the different possibilities of my body in learning and doing, in practising and exploration”.
I think, that we as artist should always ask ourself what are we going to do in the world? For me that is one of the core questions for everyone. What are you going to do in the world? Are you try to make a difference, try to make something wonderful, or do you try to help people? You should get yourself into a situation, where these things can be negotiated. So at the end you should question your practice and asking yourself, if it is necessary to invest such an amount of time in a particular action.
When Didier started Bharata Natyam it was “painful” and considered in review this influenced her contemporary artistic work and it was also very important to understand the relationship between body and space and to earn more body knowledge out of the strange movements and different rhythms.
“I see more lines in body, in space and between body and space. (I realize this, when I see photos which I take now) My view on a performance, a city etc... is completely different than some years ago (I took more photos about faces, people, beauties,... ) So MAYBE trough Bharata Natyam education I understand more about visual art?”
Except in her show Vanakkam Didier does not use concretely gestures or steps form Bharata Natyam in her performances. But for example when she looks at her performance In life or First Time she can see a phenomenon of repetition. “A repetition of questions, dates, gesture,... and I am not sure but I think that this influence came form the classes I followed in India and which I continue. Yes I think now that it comes also from this culture. Here we need diversity. In India you don't try to diversify your practise, you try to do one thing better and better. ” Her interest in India is based on traditional art, while her interest in Europe or in the western society is based on contemporary and experimental art.
“What I think I'm interested in, is to explore the paradox of traditional art and modern art maybe or to translate the spirit of traditional art in art performance? - Maybe also the phenomen of ritual that I can’t define but I feel I’m searching after this. To explore also some organic ways, that we loose more and more in our society.”
She sees a big bug between these two worlds and explores it as a “paradox of life”. “When you explore a form of art which comes from another culture it's the occasion to break habits, to explore what you can't imagine with your education or your background etc.” She was influenced also by the attitude of the Indian traditional artists who consider their art as a way of research. “They continue to learn, to advance step by step. They consider their art as a way. The aim here is not to succeed rather than to learn.”
Bharata Natyam is a solo dance, which is based on the idea of a 'fire dance' and it is said that it is the mystic manifestation of the metaphysical element of fire in the human body. The movements of an authentic Bharata Natyam dancer should resemble the movements of a dancing flame (12). I asked Didier how she would describe the metaphysical element of fire in the European body? “Effectively I use often the element of fire in my performances, as at the end of Vanakkam, BeMad II and III, and in In live (...). I never did some comparison with Indian traditional art. But the fact is, that I use this since my travel in India (maybe it was in my body before but I never used this image… ).” Didier did not like to speak about a European body in her work, she uses fire to destroy images. In BeMad III she burned her casting photo which she had used as an actress. “It was maybe a ritual to break with my drama past? But it was in the context. BeMad happened in relation with the soundmovie 'Les acteurs' of Blier (…) So it was my answer to this event.” In In life she wrote dates from the year of her birth until the present year of the performance on the ground, before she chose a particular year and put one candle on this year. “Afterwords people were free to do the same 'action'? 'ritual'? And I went to the present year, put a fire (…) and covered my body with cinders. For me it's like the present is already the past, is already past. “ And she mentioned that this could probably come from her practice of Vipassanā meditation.
“Vipassanā teaches me how to observe the body and realities of life, without reacting. (…) Technically it helps to connect mind and body, to be in and out. Not to 'control' but to be more conscious about the moment and the change. To observe this, not to WANT. I think it helps in performance art, in the notion of presence. Presence and consciousness to the body, the space, the audience (…) observe to understand not to judge or to react.”
Didier is now practising the training of Bharata Natyam for already more than three years and after the intensive period, where she also went to India, she is still continuing this training. I asked her what she can still learn form Bharata Natyam? And she is not at all interested in learning choreographies or perfect dance technique, but she is really interested for example in the concept of abhinaya (13) and “also to explore a way to observe my body, to move the body in an usual way”. As I understood Didier Bharata Natyam is a way of a training for her to get a well-trained 'performance-art body'. With the training the concentration grows and she gets the ability to use her body differently – as for example to use different parts of her body in different rhythms.
“You use one rhythm with hands, another rhythm with legs,etc... And you use movement not just like beauty, but also to express something or to tell a story (…) In Bharata Natyam lines are very important. Lines in your body and with the space. So it's really difficult for me. It's completely opposite to my 'natural' position of body and body in space. So I'll never success in this 'discipline', but the way is very interesting – strange for my body.”
In Kathakali Didier started to train technical exercises of the eyes in particularly. “During two years, every morning I practised these exercises.” A body technique which challenge you in exploring different ways of using eyes and to use it in another way than in everyday life. Didier practised also exercises about face expressions.
“In Kathakali you have nine basic expressions of face which are more developed than in Bharata Natyam. All muscles of the face are used to express some 'emotions'. But it's also a long way of education. I learned this for the project Vanakkam, but for me it stays still interesting to explore other manners to train the body and to figure out what 'emotion' is.“
Vipassana meditation taught Didier for her contemporary art practice, to be more concious about her body. “...accept what happens,... It's a good 'instrument' in my art practise.” Didier also realized, that most of the exercises from Grotowski were influenced among others, by the Indian traditional art and philosophy. She never went to the Grotowski Institute, but she followed also some training with a student of him.
“What I think about the relation between Grotowski methods (…) and some Indian techniques or oriental art is, that both doesn't separate body and mind. The physical, the mental and the spiritual. Another comparison from my experience: you have to practise, to entertain, to work hardly and seriously. Grotowski had also a guru's attitude. (…) to push the body and mental very far. To 'surpasses' limits of body and mental. (…) The notion of the community was also important. And research. …Not show but experimentation. And no separation between art and life. An artistic way as a spiritual way? If yes it's the same than for most of Indian traditional artists. But for how many years? We don't know. I think this conception of artist is in 'danger' or very strong to maintain in the modern society here and in India also it's start to be difficult. Most of young artists want or have to take care about reputation, success,etc... Well to resume, the training of Grotowski breaks the boundaries between theatre, dance, music, meditation and 'spirituality', like in some art like Bharata Natyam, Kathakali,... For Grotowski, the actor was the whole of the theatre which exists to favour its passage in a degree of humanity more true than a daily degree Grotowski considered the theatre not as final point but as a vehicle to learn more about "being human". Basically, I think that it's in this way that Grotowski included the Indian philosophy and Indian art in life in his, more than training, art. (…) when I met Boris Nieslony and Monica Klinger, when I started to be interested about performance art it's this notion, this 'philosophy' which is developed here and today (…) and which interests me.”
Didier mentioned that her body knowledge came out of all of this different traditional training and also from other classes she visited and workshops she followed. So I thought it might be useful to ask her what she thinks should be important for contemporary western art today, with the intention to find a link, a necessity or a reason why we might train our body with such kind of traditional methods? And besides, that Didier gave me a long and thoughtful response, the core was humanity.
“I'm actually afraid about the virtual world who takes more and more place in our society. It's not bad, see actually we can realize this interview because of the internet (…) And in one sense it helps to 'democratize'. But (particularly in cities) we are more and more disconnected from roots, from our origins, from sense (direction) of the community, from the earth, from the organic...”
It might be quiet unpopular today, but I think that is also my reason why I started with performance art and left sound studies. And if we want to work on the topic of humanity in our art practice and to concentrate on these essence we have to find methods which might support us in our practice.
Didier followed a Grotowski training with Pierre Vincke when she was round about 16 years old and she started the drama school with 18. “And never I found the essence of the training when I was at school. Probably because there you learn 'technique' not knowledge” And if she would get the chance again, she would study at the Grotowski theatre directly, to learn faster something about the values in artistic work. Grotowski wrote about the values of art:
“When I speak of art as vehicle, I refer to verticality. Verticality — we can see this phenomenon in categories of energy: heavy but organic energies (linked to the forces of life, to instincts, to sensuality) and other energies, more subtle. The question of verticality means to pass from a so-called coarse level — in a certain sense one could say an “everyday level” — to a level of energy more subtle or even toward the higher connection. I simply indicate the passage, the direction. There, there is another passage as well: if one approaches the higher connection — that means, if we are speaking in terms of energy, if one approaches the much more subtle energy — then there is also the question of descending, while at the same time bringing this subtle something into the more common reality, which is linked to the density of the body. Thomas Richards analysed his perception, his individual experience of this kind of process, and he characterized it as inner action.”(14)
For Didier contemporary art should influence the society, wherever we live. And as long as traditional art implies values, still develops and exist in some places, villages, cities and even inside next generations we might get the chance to keep the gap towards the place we are coming from a little bit smaller. (15)
If I think about my body and my wish to transform it in a well-trained performance body, I am still wondering why it felt so strange for me to become one with the foreign rhythm of the Japanese tradition of Kendo? Although it was not a problem for me, while I was living in Japan. Why does the European way of living change my acceptance of the training? Or am I just too impatient? I come from a goal-oriented culture and in Germany everything must go very quickly. Is this a moment of cultural interference that must be overcome in training?
During the last pages I just tried to discuss the moment of transformation within the performer, but what happens meanwhile with the audience? Is it possible to divide two cultural artistic elements, also recognisable for the recipient inside a contemporary performance, without having a defined traditional expression concept? Vanakkam is the only performance where Didier used some hastas and some face expressions of Kathakali, steps of Bharata Natyam and karanas (16). The performance is based on the theme of being lost during her first encounter with the Indian culture. In this case, it was quiet obvious for the audience, that she mixed her European culture with the Indian culture. To explore the paradox and the chaos she felt while being lost, she mixed rock music by Placebo (17) while she sung about the god Shiva in French and put colours on her body. “...as a personal, 'fabricated ritual' or ceremony. After this song, the form of the show was completely different and it was more on the way of performance art I think. But I was not conscious about this... So for me it was the biggest moment of meeting between cultures?” The audience reacted very different during this moment of the performance and while Didier was performing e.g. an Indian spectator left, for some other spectators this moment became very important to get a concrete connection, and some other people didn't like it at all. In the last case Didier suspects “... because it was not the 'image' they had about India. It broke their 'exotic' image they had...” For Didier this moment was not a contradiction. Rather, it was the essence of being lost. She just explored this moment in two different forms with the same body at the same time.
“But if we speak about the 'gap', the 'misunderstanding' between traditional Indian dance and European audience, this is often the problem when Bharata Natyam dancers come to Europe (…) audience just see the 'beauty' and the 'virtuosity' of the dancers (…) most of the time they don't understand the 'story' or the 'meaning' of this art. It's the reason that some dancers give some introduction before...”
Other artists do not give introductions about their art, because they believe that the audience can understand just by the presence of the art. We can for example listen to classical music, even if we have not received musical education.
“my work and performances are influenced by my meeting with this culture, but more 'globally', more "abstractly". (…) Bharata Natyam or Kathakali forced me to explore my body in an unknown way (…) I don't use this positions, but it 'opened' my body (…) it's to explore what is the 'other'. (…) I try to leave my educational, cultural, artistic background. Not to repudiate. But maybe to be more conscious to move. To learn to pass, not to stay. So maybe the audience can't see this in my performance... “
In the beginning I asked myself how can a traditional body technique transform into body knowledge? How can we get a well-trained 'performance-art body'? When does the transformation starts? What kind of obstacles cross our training?
“Tradition is truly active if it is like the air we breath without thinking about it. If you must force yourself to accept tradition, if you must make spasmodic efforts to search for it and, having found it, to hold it up ostentatiously, than the tradition is no longer alive inside you. There is no point to do that which has ceased to be alive because it will not be true.”(18)
For me a well-trained 'performance-art body' needs openness towards inner perception while being also open towards the outer world at the same time. The transformation starts if you can leave the technique behind. The aim is to be in the present moment, to feel and understand the the relationship between body and space, body and mind, body and rhythm, body and audience.
Repetition inside the physical training might help to explore the paradox of a foreign culture and your own culture, but even more it should let flexibility and development arise. I am sure that, if you explore an art form from another culture, you will get the chance to break your own habits. Or to put it differently - the encounter between two or more cultures happens inside the body - the body of the performer as well as the body of the recipient. Physical body training at all could let you explore what you can't imagine with your educational background yet - to across the border or the limits of your cultural body and mind. And art as an ongoing research, which I think art should be always, can be found also inside the physical body training. Obstacles which occurs during the training, just offers more possibilities to gain a wider body knowledge.
1.) Bharata Natyam or Bharatanatyam is a classical dance form originating in Tamil Nadu, India. Natyam is usually accompanied by the classical music. It has its inspirations from the sculptures of the ancient temple of Chidambaram. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bharata_Natyam (10.02.2011)
2.) Kathakali is a highly stylized classical Indian dance-drama noted for the attractive make-up of characters, elaborate costumes, detailed gestures and well-defined body movements presented in tune with the anchor playback music and complementary percussion. It originated in the country's present day state of Kerala during the 17th century and has developed over the years with improved looks, refined gestures and added themes besides more ornate singing and precise drumming. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathakali (10.02.2011)
3.) Konnakol is the art of performing percussion syllables vocally in South Indian music, the Carnatic music – South Indian classical - performance art of vocal percussion. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konnakol
4.) Vipassanā in the Buddhist tradition means insight into the nature of reality (...) Vipassana is one of world's most ancient techniques of meditation, the inception of which is attributed to Gautama Buddha. It is a practice of self-transformation through self-observation and introspection. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vipassana_meditation (10.02.2011)
5.) according to Beatrice Didier
6.) In Hinduism, the devadasi tradition ("a woman who serves god") is a religious tradition in which girls are "married" and dedicated to a deity (deva or devi) or to a temple. Originally, in addition to this and taking care of the temple and performing rituals, these women learned and practised Bharatanatyam, Odissi and other classical Indian artistic traditions and enjoyed a high social status. The devadasi system was outlawed in all of India in 1988. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devadasis (10.02.2011)
7.) Schechner, page 232
8.) Kendo, meaning "Way of the Sword", is a modern ritualized version of Japanese fencing. Kendo is based on the traditional feudal art of swordsmanship kenjutsu as practiced by the Samurai, and is one of the many Japanese sword arts in existence today. Kendo is a sport as well as a physical and mental discipline that combines strong martial arts values with sport-like physical elements http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kendo (10.02.2011)
9.) Sloka is a term derived from Sanskrit. Sloka is a verse, phrase, proverb or hymn of praise dedicated to the God. Shlokas are usually composed in a specific meter. Sloka is a verse of two lines, each of sixteen syllables. http://www.iloveindia.com/spirituality/sloka/index.html (10.02.2011)
10.) Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. The Metaphysical in Man. in Sence and Non-Sence. according to Rouhiainen, page 128
11.) The mridangam is a percussion instrument from India of ancient origin. It is the primary rhythmic accompaniment in a Carnatic music ensemble. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mridangam (10.02.2011)
13.) Abhinaya is a concept in Indian dance and drama derived from Bharata's Natya Shastra. Although now, the word has come to mean 'the art of expression', etymologically it derives from Sanskrit abhi- 'towards' + nii- 'leading/guide', so literally it means a 'leading towards' (leading the audience towards a sentiment, a rasa)Aside from its clear impact on dramatic tradition, it is used as an integral part of all the Indian classical dance styles, which all feature some kind of mimetic aspect to certain compositions, for example in depictions of daily life or devotional pieces. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abhinaya (23.02.2011)
15.) according to Didier
17.) Placebo are an alternative rock band formed in London in 1994, currently consisting of Brian Molko, Stefan Olsdal and Steve Forrest (…) The band have gained a considerable amount of international recognition… http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placebo_(band) (10.02.2011)
18.) Osinski, Zbigniew. Grotowski Blazes the Trails: From Objective Drama to Art as a Vehicle. in Wolford & Schechner page 394
Bibliography: Rouhiainen, Leena. Living Transformative Lives: Finnish Freelance Dance Artists Brought into Dialogue with Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology. Helsinki: Theatre Academy, 2003 Schechner, Richard. Performance studies: An introduction. New York: Routledge, 2007 Wolford, Lisa & Schechner, Richard. The Grotowski Sourcebook. Worlds of Performance. London: Routledge, 1997